Economics of Climate Change Responses and
Mode of International Funding of Climate Projects

A. N. Sarkar1 and Walter Leal2

            1Asia-Pacific Institute of Management, 3&4, Institutional Area, Jasola, Sarita Vihar,
New Delhi-110025, India
2Applications of Life Sciences, Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, 65, Sector S4, 21033 Hamburg, Germany
1E-mail:, 2E-mail:  


Energy-intensive industrialization and various anthropogenic actions by humans over centuries have resulted in a huge build up of Greenhouse gases triggering consequential ‘Greenhouse effects’ and ‘Global warming’. This, in turn, has caused global climate change with adverse impact on ecology, environment, economy and human health. Among other things, the economic impact of global warming and climate change/ aberration has been widely acknowledged to be phenomenal. In past few years, climate change economics has focused on diagnosing the economic underpinnings of climate change and offering positive and normative analyses of policies to confront the problem. While overlapping with other areas of environmental economics, climate change economics has a unique focus because of distinctive features of the climate problem, including the long time scale, the extent and nature of uncertainties, the international scope of the issue, and the uneven distribution of policy benefits and costs across space and time.  The ‘Kyoto Protocol’ (1997), ‘Bali Action Plan’ (2007), and of late Copenhagen Accord (2009), have effectively provided, among other things, the institutional mechanisms and broad operational framework for funding such of those  initiatives at local, regional and global levels that can limit and progressively reduce greenhouse gas emissions through carefully designed mitigation and adaptation actions. In this paper, an attempt has been made to discuss the various economic and financial implications in climate change impact assessment and thereby help formulation of appropriate strategies, including the mode of transfer of resources and technologies from the developed to the developing economy to respond to the various adverse impacts of climate change, primarily through mitigation and adaptation actions. The emerging business opportunities, borne out of economic responses to climate change management and Emissions trading in the post-Copenhagen scenario, is also briefly discussed.

Keywords: Global Warming, Greenhouse Effect, Climate Change Economics, Mitigation, Adaptation, Funding Climate Change Response, Carbon Financing, Business Opportunities of Climate Change